Querflugel [Querpianoforte] (Ger.). A small horizontal piano, usually wing-shaped with the keyboard placed at an acute angle to the spine. The wrest pins are positioned behind the keyboard as in a grand but with the strings running diagonally to the right. The type is found from at least the 1780s.
Rebuilt piano. A used piano rendered to like-new condition. Rebuilding typically includes a new cabinet finish, plate regilded. new strings, new hammers, new dampers, replaced or repaired action parts.
Reconditioned piano. Piano cleaned, adjusted, and lubricated. Broken parts repaired and replaced. Tuned, regulated, and voiced.
Refurbished piano. Somewhat nebulous term, often used to mean reconditioned.
Registered Piano Technician (RPT). A member of the Piano Technicians Guild (PTG) who has passed a rigorous testing and certification program for most aspects of piano technical and tuning work.
Regulating button [regulating screw]. An adjustable screw used to alter various required tolerances throughout the piano mechanism.
Regulation. Adjusting of the key-action assembly, damper assembly, pedal functions, and string seating and leveling to promote performance and consistency. See also in regulation.
Acoustic resonance is the tendency of an acoustic system to absorb less energy when it is forced or driven at a frequency that matches one of its own natural frequencies of vibration (its resonance frequency) than it does at other frequencies. As such, acoustic resonance is a branch of mechanical resonance that is concerned with the mechanical vibrations in the frequency range of human hearing, in other words sound. For humans, hearing is normally limited to frequencies between about 20 Hz and 20,000 Hz (20 kHz), although these limits are not definite.
An acoustically resonant object usually has more than one resonance frequency, especially at harmonics of the strongest resonance. It will easily vibrate at those frequencies, and vibrate less strongly at other frequencies. It will “pick out” its resonance frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation. In effect, it is filtering out all frequencies other than its resonance.
Acoustic resonance is an important consideration for instrument builders, as most acoustic instruments use resonators, such as the strings and body of a violin, the length of tube in a flute, and the shape of a drum membrane. Acoustic resonance is also important for hearing. For example, resonance of a stiff structural element, called the basilar membrane within the cochlea of the inner ear allows hair cells on the membrane to detect sound. Image
Restored piano. Nebulous term, often used to mean reconditioned or rebuilt.
Repetition lever. A spring-loaded lever that supports a hammer allowing the jack to return quickly without the key necessarily returning to rest.
Scale design. A calculated combination of a string’s diameter, speaking length, flexibility, and tension to give the best resulting tone,volume, and sustain.
Scaling. The relationship between the sounding length of the strings and their pitch. Modern pianos have scaling that is gradually shortened throughout the range from treble to bass.
Second-hand. A second-hand or used good is one that is being purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user.The strategy of buying used items is employed by some to save money, as they are typically worth less than the equivalent new items. Purchasing used items for reuse prevents them from becoming waste and saves costly production of equivalent new goods. Motivations for purchase include conserving natural resources and protecting the environment, and may form part of a simple living plan.
Serial number. Discrete and sequential number given to every piano as production is completed. In uprights, it is usually found printed onto the plate near the tuning pins or embossed into the wood or nameplate on the back of the piano. In grands, it is usually found near the front under the music desk printed onto the plate near the tuning pins. Nearly every retail dealer has a book that sources this number to a year of manufacture.
Set-off. see ESCAPEMENT.